Annals of Health Law
STRATEGY AGAINST SMOKING
only for the short time period that the rewards are disbursed. 123 Moreover,
the degree of success increases with the extent of the reward, 124 seemingly
up to a certain amount from which an increase is no longer perceived as
substantial by the participants. 125 According to observation, progressively
increasing rewards have further improved the outcome. 126 A considerable
number of worksite trials offering incentives for smoking cessation also
indicate the potential efficacy, 127 though the results tend to be less
significant. 128 Again, the studies did not show a long-term effect after the
incentives ended, 129 except for a study conducted by Volpp et al. 130 in which
participants received rewards for completing a smoking cessation program
along with two six-month periods of abstinence. Although the success rate
six months after distributing the last incentive was moderate, 131 and might
123. See, e.g., Cahill, supra note 121, passim; Sarah H. Heil et al., A Contingent
Payment Model of Smoking Cessation: Effects on Abstinence and Withdrawal, 5 NICOTINE &
TOBACCO RES. 205 passim (2003); R. J. Lamb, Martin Y. Iguchi & Kimberly C. Kirby,
Effects of Target Criteria and Reinforcement Magnitude in Reinforcing Reduced Breath CO
Levels in Smokers not Seeking Treatment, in PROBLEMS OF DRUG DEPENDENCE 1994,
RESEARCH MONOGRAPHS 153, 272 (National Institute on Drug Abuse ed., 1995); Maxine L.
Stitzer & George E. Bigelow. Contingent Payment for Carbon Monoxide Reduction: Effects
of Pay Amount, 14 BEH. THERAPY 647 passim (1983) [hereinafter Contingent Payment];
Maxine L. Stitzer & George E. Bigelow, Contingent Reinforcement for Reduced Breath
Carbon Monoxide Levels: Target-specific Effects on Cigarette Smoking, 10 ADDICTIVE BEH.
345 passim (1985); Kevin G. Volpp et al., A Randomized Trial of Financial Incentives for
Smoking Cessation, 350 NEW ENG. J. MED. 699 passim (2009).
124. Lamb, supra note 123, at 272; Contingent Payment, supra note 123, passim.
125. Heil et al., supra note 123, passim.
126. John M. Roll, Mark P. Reilly & Chris-Ellyn Johanson, The Influence of Exchange
Delays on Cigarette Versus Money Choice: Laboratory Analog of Voucher-Based
Reinforcement Therapy, 8 EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 366
127. Michel Gomel et al., Work-Site Cardiovascular Risk Reduction: A Randomized
Trial of Health Risk Assessment, Education, Counseling, and Incentives, 83 AM. J. PUB.
HEALTH 1232 passim (1993); Leonard A. Jason et al., Incentives and Competition in a
Worksite Smoking Cessation Intervention, 80 AM. J. PUB. HEALTH 205 passim (1990);
Leonard A. Jason et al., A Worksite Smoking Cessation Intervention Involving the Media and
Incentives, 17 AM. J. COMMUNITY PSYCHOL. 785 passim (1989); Dyann Matson Koffman et
al., The Impact of Including Incentives and Competition in a Workplace Smoking Cessation
Program on Quit Rates, 13 AM. J. HEALTH PROMOTION. 105 passim (1998); Kevin G. Volpp
et al., A Randomized Trial of Financial Incentives for Smoking Cessation, 350 NEW ENG. J.
MED. 699 passim (2009).
128. See Donatelle et al., supra note 122, at S170; Gemma Janer et al., Health
Promotion Trials at Worksites and Risk Factors for Cancer, 28( 3) SCAND. J. WORK ENV’T
HEALTH 141, 150 (2002).
129. Cahill & Perera, supra note 122, at 7-8; Donatelle et al., supra note 122, at S170;
Geir Smedslund et al., The Effectiveness of Workplace Smoking Cessation Programmes: A
Meta-Analysis of Recent Studies, 13 TOBACCO CONTROL 197 passim (2004).
130. Financial Incentives, supra note 107, passim.
131. 35.9% relapse rate in the incentive group compared to 27.3% rate in the control
group. Financial Incentives, supra note 107, at 708.