Annals of Health Law
STRATEGY AGAINST SMOKING
even have been influenced by the selection of enrolled participants who
were predominantly white with relatively high education and income, 132 the
latter experiment can at least be seen as an indicator for the long-term
potential of incentives for behavior modification.
Another form of incentivized smoking cessation studies, though with
only moderate rates of success, are so-called quit-and-win contests,
typically offering participants to take part in a lottery for a considerable
reward if they managed to quit. 133 In particular, due to the predominant
reliance on self-reported smoking status, clear evidence of its efficacy is
Besides experiences with incentives to achieve smoking cessation,
lottery incentives are of particular interest for the purpose of this article.
Lottery incentives have proven effective in a great variety of settings
regarding absenteeism, 135 drug use, 136 medication adherence, 137 employee
performance, 138 recycling attitudes and behavior, 139, and charity. 140 There
also exist two studies including lottery incentives to challenge smoking
behavior; both, however, contain inconclusive results regarding the
effectiveness of lottery incentives. 141 The most comparable study to the
132. Financial Incentives, supra note 107, at 708.
133. See Kate Cahill & Rafael Perera, Quit and Win Contests for Smoking Cessation, 3
THE COCHRANE LIBRARY 1 passim (2008); Ellen J. Hahn et al., A Controlled Trial of a Quit
and Win Contest, 20( 2) AM. J. HEALTH PROMOTION 117 passim (2005); Heikki J. Korhonen
et al., National TV Smoking Cessation Program and Contest in Finland, 21 PREV. MED. 74
passim (1992); Tellervo Korhonen et al., International Quit and Win 1996: Standardized
Evaluation in Selected Campaign Countries, 31 PREV. MED. 742 passim (2000).
134. Cahill & Perera, supra note 133, at 2-3. But see Hahn et al., supra note 133, passim.
135. Mary A. Curran & Kent E. Curran, Gambling Away Absenteeism, 17( 12) J.
NURSING ADMIN. 28 passim (1987).
136. See, e.g., Sheila M. Alessi et al., Low-cost Contingency Management in Community
Substance Abuse Treatment Settings: A Transition to Delivering Incentives in Group
Therapy, 15 EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 293 passim (2007); Udi E.
Ghitza et al., Randomized Trial of Prize-based Reinforcement Density for Simultaneous
Abstinence from Cocaine and Heroin, 75 J. CONSULTING & CLINICAL
PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 765 passim (2007); Nancy M. Petry et al., Randomized Trial of
Contingent Prizes Versus Vouchers in Cocaine-using Methadone Patients, 75 J. CONSULTING
& CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY 983 passim (2007); Kenzie L. Preston et al., Randomized Trial
Comparing two Treatment Strategies Using Prize-based Reinforcement of Abstinence in
Cocaine and Opiate Users, 41 J. APPLIED BEHAV. ANALYSIS 551 passim (2008).
137. Kevin G. Volpp et al., A Test of Financial Incentives to Improve Warfarin
Adherence, 8 BMC HEALTH SERVICES RES. 272 passim (2008).
138. See Karen M. Evans et al., The Effects of Lottery Incentive Programs on
Performance, 9( 2) J. ORGAN. BEHAV. MGMT. 113 passim (1988).
139. William D. Diamond & Ben Z. Loewy, Effects of Probabilistic Rewards on
Recycling Attitudes and Behavior, 21 J. APPL. SOC. PSYCH. 1590 passim (1991).
140. Craif Landry et al., Towards an Understanding of the Economics of Charity:
Evidence from a Field Experiment, 121 Q. J. ECON. 747 passim (2006).