force major sociopolitical changes is quite limited, and for a very simple
reason. Instead of “deliver[ing] a better life for the people,”213 political
leadership in many of these countries is increasingly resorting to “bribing,
threatening, and, on occasions, murdering any opposition in the process.”214
Cowed and terrified, there is little citizens can do—that is, without external
assistance, precisely the kind that is encapsulated within the meaning of
MDG 8. The MDG, as previously explained, requires wealthy advanced
countries to carry others along in their march toward realizing the objectives
of the Millennium Declaration.215 The leverage of Western nations, whose
funds sustain most third world regimes, is not at all insignificant. As summed
up elsewhere, the “desperate need for development cash” in these countries
“may ultimately be the catalyst that forces its political leadership to adopt
much-needed good governance and anti-corruption reforms.”216 This
leverage was used with considerable degree of success, even if for self-serving purposes, in the cold war era. It should be deployed again – only this
time, for a good cause.
are weak, and some parts of public administration appear to be worsening due to
politicization, distorted incentives and limited accountability. The costs of poor
governance—whether unenforceable property rights and contracts, deteriorating
law and order, or widespread teacher and doctor absenteeism—are largely borne
by the poor.
213. Hannah Beech, People’s President: Joko Widodo’s election in Indonesia marks how
the world’s third largest democracy is evolving, TIME, Oct. 27, 2014, at 36 (quoting president-elect of Indonesia Joko Widodo).
214. ACHEBE, supra note 203, at 245.
215. See Millennium Declaration, supra note 106.