manufacturers.144 Many expressed concerns that these measures would
inevitably delay access to affordable medicine. A similar bill, sans wild-card extension, was introduced in 2006 but remained unsuccessful.145
In September 2007, Representatives Matheson (D-UT) and
Ferguson (R-NJ) introduced the Strategies to Address Antimicrobial
Resistance Act (“STAAR Act”),146 which aimed to impede antibiotic
resistance by funding data compilation and stewardship programs.147 The
bill received enthusiastic support from the IDSA and other scientific
organizations, but has not been passed despite the multiple re-introductions
of the bill.148 Also in 2007, Senator Bernie Sanders (I-VT) introduced the
Medical Innovation Prize Act.149 The bill proposed that the pharmaceutical
manufacturer receive a cash reward for developing a medical innovation,
rather than a traditional patent right.150 Cash rewards, unlike patent rights,
incentivize the innovation and conservation of antibiotics because
pharmaceutical companies are not required to capitalize on sales during the
drug’s patented years.151 Thus, a cash prize creates an inducement for
antibiotic development that is otherwise missing in the existing
price/volume landscape of the pharmaceutical industry. Again, this bill did
not gain popularity and Congress failed to pass the bill.152
Two years later, in 2009, Representative Slaughter (D-NY), the
only microbiologist in Congress,153 reintroduced the Preservation of
Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act (PAMTA), which was previously
introduced in 2007 and aimed to eliminate the use of subtherapeutic doses
of antibiotics in livestock feed.154 The bill sought to reduce the use of
144. Id. at 232.
145. Biodefense and Pandemic Vaccine and Drug Development Act of 2006, S. 2564,
109th Cong. (2006); Schulman, supra note 142, at 232 (explaining that the Biodefense and
Pandemic Vaccine and Drug Development Act of 2006 is aimed at strengthening
countermeasures against outbreaks of illness that are deliberate, accidental, and/or natural).
146. Strategies to Address Antimicrobial Resistance Act, H.R. 3697, 110th Cong. (2007).
147. Fox, supra note 29, at 49.
148. Strategies to Address Antimicrobial Resistance Act, S. 2313, 110th Cong. (2007);
Strategies to Address Antimicrobial Resistance Act, H.R. 2400, 111th Cong. (2009); Fox,
supra note 29, at 49–50.
149. Medical Innovation Prize Act of 2007, S. 2210, 110th Cong. (2007).
150. S. 2210 § 2.
151. James Love, Prizes, Not Prices, to Stimulate Antibiotic R& D, SCIDEV.NET (Mar. 26,
152. Schulman, supra note 142, at 233.
153. Helena Bottemiller, Rep. Slaughter Reintroduces PAMTA, Criticizes FDA Strategy
for Tackling Antibiotic Resistance, FOOD SAFETY NEWS (Mar. 15, 2013), http://www.
154. Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act of 2009, H.R. 1549, 111th
Cong. (2009); Fox, supra note 29, at 50.