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healthcare treatment.300 Amidst the wave of managed care in the 1980s, the decision-makers for Pennsylvania-based Geisinger Health System realized that as the delivery of care was changing, the financing of that care would also change.301 As a result, the Geisinger Health System created the Geisinger Health Plan.302 The Geisinger Health Plan sustains the system’s care coordination goals and provides the financial accountability necessary for the system to start caring about the quality and cost of a patient’s continuum of care.303 In 2015, a subsidiary of Ascension Health, the largest not-for-profit healthcare provider based in St. Louis, released its plan to buy an insurance company licensed in states throughout the Midwest.304 The transaction will allow a health system to offer its narrow provider network on a state health insurance exchange.305 “The acquisition makes a lot of sense . . . Hospitals are now expected to manage population health and owning a health plan provides both infrastructure and a way to connect more directly with insurance purchasers.”306 The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) is another example demonstrating the recently developed alliance between health plans and healthcare providers.307 The UPMC operates the UPMC Health Plan and simultaneously acts as a healthcare provider and health insurer.308 UPMC Health Plan insureds have access to the various UPMC systems as well as other community providers that have contracted with the UPMC Health Plan.309 The UPMC’s integrated delivery and financing system provides patients with high-quality care at lower costs.310 The private insurance exchanges created under the ACA have generated an easy route for health systems to offer their own narrow network health
300. Word’s Out, supra note 293. 301. Herman, The Risks, supra note 257. 302. Id. 303. Douglas McCarthy et al., Geisinger Health System: Achieving the Potential of System Integration Through Innovation, Leadership, Measurement, and Incentives, COMMONWEALTH FUND 3 (June 2009), http://www.commonwealthfund.org/~/media/Files/ Publications/Case%20Study/2009/Jun/McCarthy_Geisinger_case_study_624_update.pdf. 304. Jay Greene, Ascension Health Subsidiary to Buy Michigan Health Insurer for $50 Million, MODERN HEALTHCARE (Feb, 20, 2015), http://www.modernhealthcare.com/article/ 20150220/NEWS/150229987. 305. Id. 306. Id. 307. Burns, supra note 245. 308. Health Plan Introduces New Individual Products, UPMC (Feb. 2, 2016), http://www.upmc.com/media/NewsReleases/2012/Pages/health-plan-introduces-new- products.aspx. 309. UPMC Facts & Stats, UPMC, http://www.upmc.com/about/facts/pages/default. aspx (last visited Mar. 10, 2016). 310. Id.